1. From July 2020 to July 2021, 19 percent of the global nation-state threat activity warnings that Microsoft issued were made to customers in which country, second only to the United States?
2. Which of the following is NOT a member of the intelligence alliance the Five Eyes?
3. The first and most notable act of cyber attribution was when the cybersecurity firm Mandiant in 2013 released the APT1 report, which exposed a large-scale cyber campaign by which country’s military?
4. Before Russia’s invasion, the Ukrainian government’s Red Team prepared for cyber operations by:
5. What is the concept of deterrence by denial?
6. What kind of technology is NSO Group’s Pegasus software?
7. Who hosts the world’s largest international cyber defense exercises?
8. Cuba, Nicaragua, and ______ have the highest levels of Russian propaganda consumption in Latin America.
9. Which of the following is not within the mandate of the International Criminal Court Office of the Prosecutor?
10. Which of the following is not an example of blurred lines between civilian and military domains?
A Q&A with Hanno Pevkur
A Q&A with Ambassador Sorin Ducaru
Dr. Cordula Droege
Civilians must be protected from—and should not participate in—military cyber operations.
Karim A.A. Khan KC
We must renew our efforts to ensure that justice is not outpaced by the changing character of war.
A Q&A with Peter Micek
A Q&A with Ambassador Bonnie Jenkins
Russia’s success in establishing and maintaining a media foothold in Latin America highlights how important worldwide influence campaigns are to hybrid warfare.
A Q&A with Izumi Nakamitsu
International cooperation is integral to solve key challenges and reduce socioeconomic and geopolitical risks.
The war in Ukraine has shown that the tech industry has a meaningful role to play in enabling developers to strengthen defenses from cyberattacks.
The tech industry was first to push back as cyber mercenaries launched influence operations, malware development, and espionage, but governments are catching up.
David van Weel
Responding to the growing threat of hostile cyber operations requires a mindset shift toward greater civilian–military cooperation as well as more engagement with the private sector.
A Q&A with Dr. Peter Maurer
Transparency and rigorous data collection are essential to credibly tracking cyber operations during the Russia–Ukraine war— as are being neutral and facilitating redress for all victims.
How various international stakeholders have worked together to mitigate cyberattacks in the ongoing hybrid war.
As cyberattacks become increasingly common, calling out perpetrators is fundamental to imposing sanctions and taking countermeasures.
Social networks and tech corporations have become significant actors in hybrid warfare, but much work is needed to determine how they can contribute to the broader efforts of preventing and resolving deadly conflicts.
Ukraine has been building up its digital defense for the past decade—preparation that is now paying off.
The key is to mitigate attacks on communications systems and unmask attempts to corrupt the information environment.
Russia has aligned its cyber, military, and information operations in an unprecedented campaign.
The digital domain is increasingly a battleground for state and nonstate actors who are leveraging capabilities in cyberspace to advance strategic geopolitical goals.